Thesis: Off-campus speech should only be subject to school discipline if the speaker intends for the speech to reach campus, and the speech actually does reach campus, with some exceptions.
Thesis: Distinctions drawn by the Ninth Circuit--both between minority and majority groups, and between speech that amounts to psychological attacks on others and speech that does not--are inherently problematic in application. For these reasons, courts should formulate a better interpretation of Tinker's “rights of others” prong, such as one that would allow schools to regulate student speech only when it has the potential to spark a physical assault.
B. Criticism [problem]
For published examples of outlines, look at tables of contents of student Notes. The following is from Joseph DeMott, Rethinking Ashe v. Swenson from an Originalist Perspective, 71 Stan. L. Rev. 411 (2019). Your initial outline need not be as concise or polished as the table of contents, but this is an idea of how to organize a scholarly article.