There is no official record of the proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of 1878, though James Madison did keep a journal of the procedural information. However, there are a number of primary and secondary sources that discuss the Convention and the arguments for and against the adoption of the Constitution.
LAW STACKS 1st floor KF 4515 .F4
The Federalist is a compilation of essays supporting the ratification of the U.S. Constitution written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay.
Records of the Federal Convention of 1787
LAW RARE BOOKS basement KF 4520 .U556 1911
A collection of the documentary records of the Constitutional Convention, compiled by Max Farrand in 1911.
Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787
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The Library of Congress also provides access to a number of documents related to the Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention from the American Memory Project, A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation.